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March 21, 2014 Day 61 of the Sixth Year - History

March 21, 2014 Day 61 of the Sixth Year - History


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First Lady Michelle Obama plays ping pong with students while touring the Beijing Normal School in Beijing, China, March 21, 2014.


Celebration of World Water Day 2021 – Valuing Water

On 22 March, 2021, World Water Day will be celebrated in an online event. The World Water Day celebrates water and raises awareness of the global water crisis, and a core focus of the observance is to support the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6: water and sanitation for all by 2030.

The theme of World Water Day 2021 is valuing water. The value of water is about much more than its price – water has enormous and complex value for our households, food, culture, health, education, economics and the integrity of our natural environment. If we overlook any of these values, we risk mismanaging this finite, irreplaceable resource. SDG 6 is to ensure water and sanitation for all. Without a comprehensive understanding of water’s true, multidimensional value, we will be unable to safeguard this critical resource for the benefit of everyone.

On the day itself, the United Nations World Water Development Report is also released, focusing on the same topic as the campaign and recommending policy direction to decision makers.

Simultaneous interpretation will be available during the event in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

World Water Day 2021 – Valuing Water

High-Level Opening Ceremony

Master of Ceremony Ms. Sasha Koo-Oshima, Deputy Director, Land and Water Division, FAO

Welcoming address by Mr. QU Dongyu, Director-General, FAO

Opening address by Ms. Audrey Azoulay, Director-General of UNESCO (video message)

Opening address by Mr. Gilbert F. Houngbo, Chair, UN-Water and President of IFAD

Message from Special Guests

His Holiness Pope Francis (video message read by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, Secretary of State, Vatican City)

H.E. Mr. David Choquehuanca, Vice-president of the Plurinational State of Bolivia

H.E. Mr. Serigne Mbaye Thiam, Minister of Water and Sanitation of the Republic of Senegal

H.E. Ms. Marina Sereni, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of the Republic of Italy (video message)

H.E. Mr. Jonathan Malagón González, Minister of Housing, Cities and Territory of the Republic of Colombia (video message)

Mr. Henk Ovink, Special Envoy International Water Affairs, The Kingdom of Netherlands (video message)

Presentation of the UN World Water Development Report 2021

Ms. Michela Miletto, Coordinator and Director, UNESCO WWAP

Interactive discussion – what does water mean to you?

Moderator Mr. Neil Dhot, Executive Director, Aquafed (UK)

Ms. Rasha Hassan, Governance Coordinator, Water Youth Network (Syria)

Euphresia Luseka, Water Governance Expert and Co-Lead Rural Water Supply network (RWSN) (Kenya)

Keynote listener Mr. Pedro Arrojo-Agudo, UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation (Spain)

Announcement of the winner of the Stockholm Water Prize

Mr. Torgny Holmgren, Executive Director, SIWI (Sweden) (video message)

Closing of the celebration

Ms. Maria Helena Semedo, Deputy Director-General, Climate and Natural Resources, FAO

The recording of the World Water Day 2021 celebration os now available here.


Hideki Matsuyama

Highlights Hideki Matsuyama cards birdie on No. 7 at Farmers In the opening round of the 2018 Farmers Insurance Open, Hideki Matsuyama knocks down his birdie putt on the par-4 7th hole at the North Course.

Tohoku Fukushi University

  • 2014 the Memorial Tournament presented by Nationwide Insurance
  • 2016 Waste Management Phoenix Open
  • 2017 World Golf Championships-HSBC Champions, Waste Management Phoenix Open, World Golf Championships-Bridgestone Invitational
  • 2021 Masters Tournament

International Victories (8)

  • 2011 Mitsui Sumitomo Visa Taiheiyo [Jpn]
  • 2013 Tsuruya Open [Jpn]
  • 2013 Diamond Cup Golf [Jpn]
  • 2013 Fujisankei Classic [Jpn]
  • 2013 Casio World Open [Jpn]
  • 2014 Dunlop Phoenix [Jpn]
  • 2016 Japan Open Golf Championship [Jpn]
  • 2016 Taiheiyo Masters [Jpn]
  • 2014 Defeated Kevin Na, the Memorial Tournament presented by Nationwide Insurance
  • 2016 Defeated Rickie Fowler, Waste Management Phoenix Open
  • 2017 Defeated Webb Simpson, Waste Management Phoenix Open
  • 2013, 2015, 2017, 2019 Presidents Cup
  • 2016 World Cup
  • 2008, 2012 Eisenhower Trophy
  • Learned golf from his father, a former club champion.
  • Was a student at Tohoku Fukushi University in Sendai, Japan when the city was devastated by an earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, but was in Australia training at the time. Returned to find his dorm room destroyed and struggled to find food. A few weeks later, made his debut at the Masters having won the Asian Amateur.
  • Wore buttons at THE PLAYERS Championship in 2016 to show support for Japan after the Kumamoto earthquakes in April 2016.
  • Became the first Japanese player to win a men's major championship when he won the 2021 Masters Tournament.
  • Received the Prime Minister's Award in Japan following his 2021 Masters win. Was the first player from Japan to win the Masters Tournament.
  • Masters Tournament: Won his first major championship title at the Masters Tournament, becoming the first male major champion from Japan. Marked his sixth win on the PGA TOUR in his 187th career start at the age of 29 years, 1 month, 17 days. Became the seventh champion that previously earned low amateur honors at the Masters and third in a five-year period, joining Cary Middlecoff, Jack Nicklaus, Ben Crenshaw, Tiger Woods, Phil Mickelson and Sergio Garcia. Shot a bogey-free 65 in the third round and held a four-stroke lead entering the final round. Final-round 73 snapped his streak of 10 consecutive par-or-better scores at the Masters. Marked the ninth instance that the winner of the Masters carded an over-par score in the final round and first since Trevor Immelman in 2008. Made three eagles, most of any player in the field (No. 8/R1, No. 13/R2, No. 15/R3).
  • Vivint Houston Open: Shot a final-round 63 to finish T2 at the Vivint Houston Open. Marked his third score of 63 or better in the final round of a PGA TOUR event and first since the 2019 BMW Championship (63). Led the field in Birdies (21).
  • Masters Tournament: Won his first major championship title at the Masters Tournament, becoming the first male major champion from Japan. Marked his sixth win on the PGA TOUR in his 187th career start at the age of 29 years, 1 month, 17 days. Became the seventh champion that previously earned low amateur honors at the Masters and third in a five-year period, joining Cary Middlecoff, Jack Nicklaus, Ben Crenshaw, Tiger Woods, Phil Mickelson and Sergio Garcia. Shot a bogey-free 65 in the third round and held a four-stroke lead entering the final round. Final-round 73 snapped his streak of 10 consecutive par-or-better scores at the Masters. Marked the ninth instance that the winner of the Masters carded an over-par score in the final round and first since Trevor Immelman in 2008. Made three eagles, most of any player in the field (No. 8/R1, No. 13/R2, No. 15/R3).
  • Vivint Houston Open: Shot a final-round 63 to finish T2 at the Vivint Houston Open. Marked his third score of 63 or better in the final round of a PGA TOUR event and first since the 2019 BMW Championship (63). Led the field in Birdies (21).

Advanced to the TOUR Championship for the seventh consecutive season, tying Daniel Berger for No. 15 in the FedExCup standings. Became one of three players to qualify for the TOUR Championship in each season from 2013-14 through 2019-20, joining Dustin Johnson and Patrick Reed. Recorded five top-10s, highlighted by a runner-up at the inaugural ZOZO CHAMPIONSHIP in his home country of Japan, and made the cut in 17 of 20 starts. Competed for the International Team at the Presidents Cup, making his fourth consecutive appearance at the event.

  • BMW Championship: Finished T3 at the BMW Championship, his second consecutive top-three result at the event. Held the outright 18-hole lead (fell to 1-for-6 with the 18-hole lead/co-lead) and a share of the 54-hole lead (fell to 1-for-4). Co-led the field in Par-5 Scoring Average (4.50).
  • World Golf Championships-Mexico Championship: Finished T6 at the World Golf Championships-Mexico Championship, his first top-10 at the event and first in a WGC since winning the 2017 WGC-FedEx St. Jude Invitational.
  • The Genesis Invitational: Made a birdie on the 18th hole in the second round of The Genesis Invitational to make the cut on the number and went on to finish T5. Marked the first event of his career at which he started the third round outside the top 50 and finished in the top five.
  • ZOZO CHAMPIONSHIP: In the first PGA TOUR event in his home country, finished second at the ZOZO CHAMPIONSHIP. At 16-under 264, recorded his second career 72-hole score of 264 or better (first: 264/2017 World Golf Championships-FedEx St. Jude Invitational). Played the par-4s in 6-under, tied with Shane Lowry for best in the field.
  • THE CJ CUP @ NINE BRIDGES: Shot a final-round 65 to tie Gary Woodland and Cameron Smith for third at THE CJ CUP @ NINE BRIDGES in his second start at the event. Marked his 16th career top-three result.

Qualified for the FedExCup Playoffs and advanced to the TOUR Championship for the sixth time in his sixth season as a member, finishing tied for ninth in the FedExCup standings. Was one of three players to advance to the TOUR Championship in each season from 2013-14 to 2018-19, joining Dustin Johnson and Patrick Reed. Recorded seven top-10s, highlighted by a solo-third at the BMW Championship, and made 22 cuts in 24 starts.

  • BMW Championship: Posted two rounds of 63 en route to a third-place finish at the BMW Championship. Held a one-stroke lead after 36 holes, but entered the final round 10 shots back. Fired second 63 of the week (second round) to finish alone in third, five shots behind winner Justin Thomas. Totaled 369'1" putts made for the tournament. Entered the week No. 33 in the FedExCup standings and moved to No. 15, securing sixth consecutive start in the TOUR Championship.
  • the Memorial Tournament presented by Nationwide: Highlighted by a third-round 64, finished sixth at the Memorial Tournament presented by Nationwide. Represented fourth top-15 in six starts at Muirfield Village.
  • THE PLAYERS Championship: Finished T8 in his sixth start at THE PLAYERS Championship, marking his second top-10 in the event.
  • Genesis Open: Posted final-round 67 for a 7-under total en route to a T9 result at the Genesis Open after sitting T36 through 54 holes.
  • Farmers Insurance Open: Finished T3 at the Farmers Insurance Open. Moved 73 spots in the FedExCup, the largest move by a player for the week (No. 114 to No. 41). Marked his best finish on TOUR since his 2017 win at the World Golf Championships-FedEx St. Jude Invitational.

Advanced to the TOUR Championship for the fifth time in fifth season as a member, finishing No. 13 in the FedExCup standings. Season included 18 made cuts in 21 starts, with four top-10s. Along with Tony Finau, was one of two players to finish in the top 15 at all four FedExCup Playoffs events.

  • TOUR Championship: Matched Rickie Fowler for the low score of the final round with a 5-under 65 to finish T4 at the TOUR Championship, five strokes behind champion Tiger Woods. Marked his best result in five appearances at the season-ending event. His second-round 66 was the only bogey-free round of the tournament.
  • Dell Technologies Championship: Closed with a 6-under 65 to finish T4 at the Dell Technologies Championship, four strokes behind champion Bryson DeChambeau.
  • the Memorial Tournament presented by Nationwide: Shared first-round lead at the Memorial Tournament with Abraham Ancer and Joaquin Niemann after opening with 7-under 65 en route to a T13 result. Six-under stretch (B-B-B-B-E) on Nos. 13-17 in round one included eagle-2 at the par-4 17th (gap wedge/137 yards) to become the seventh player in tournament history to eagle No. 17, and first since Bubba Watson (2009/R2).
  • Waste Management Phoenix Open: In search of a three-peat at the Waste Management Phoenix Open, withdrew before his second-round tee time due to a left wrist injury.
  • Sentry Tournament of Champions: Finished T4 at the Sentry Tournament of Champions, closing with a bogey-free final-round 66. In his third start at the winners-only event at The Plantation Course at Kapalua, recorded his third top-four finish.
  • Hero World Challenge: Finished T5 at the Hero World Challenge in his attempt to become the second player to win the event in back-to-back seasons (Tiger Woods/2006-07). At 11-under-par 277, finished seven strokes behind champion Rickie Fowler.
  • CIMB Classic: A year after finishing runner-up to Justin Thomas, finished T5 at the CIMB Classic in his season debut. His third-round 63 matched the low round of the tournament.

Advanced to the FedExCup Playoffs for the fourth consecutive time in his career and headed into the Playoffs in the No. 1 position. Poor form in the four Playoffs events dropped him to No. 8 when the season concluded. Made 20 cuts in 22 starts for the season in which he claimed three victories and three runner-up finishes among his seven top-10 results. First win of the season came at WGC-HSBC Champions, claiming victory by a seven-stroke margin and becoming the first Asian player to win a World Golf Championships event. Defended his Waste Management Phoenix Open title in a playoff over Webb Simpson. Third win came with a final-round 61 at Firestone CC for a five-stroke victory over Zach Johnson at the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational.

  • Presidents Cup: Represented the International Team in his third consecutive Presidents Cup, with a 1-2-1 record at Liberty National. Highlight was shooting an estimated 9-under to defeat Justin Thomas 3 and 1 in Sunday Singles match. Paired with rookie Adam Hadwin to halve with Jordan Spieth/Patrick Reed in day two Four-ball match.
  • Dell Technologies Championship: Posted a stretch of seven birdies in eight holes during the final round of the Dell Technologies Championship en route to final-round 6-under 65 for a T4 finish at TPC Boston.
  • THE NORTHERN TRUST: Entered the week with the lead in the FedExCup, but missed the cut at THE NORTHERN TRUST to drop to No. 4 in the standings headed to TPC Boston.
  • PGA Championship: Finished T5 (three strokes behind Justin Thomas) at the PGA Championship for his seventh top-10 finish in 21 major championship starts. Marked fifth consecutive finish inside the top 15 in his last five major starts. Maintained his lead atop the FedExCup standings, holding a 180-point lead over Justin Thomas with just one event left before the FedExCup Playoffs began. Marked the 12th week he has held the lead during the season. Was seeking to become the first player from Japan to win a major championship. He (T2 at the 2017 U.S. Open) and Isao Aoki (2nd at the 1980 U.S. Open) currently have the best finish by a player from Japan. In addition, came close to becoming the 12th player since 1934 to win a major championship the week after winning a PGA TOUR event, having won the week prior at the World Golf Championships-Bridgestone Invitational. Making his fifth PGA Championship start, owns two straight top-five finishes.
  • World Golf Championships-Bridgestone Invitational: In his 100th start on the PGA TOUR, posted 9-under 61 in the final round at Firestone CC to finish 16-under 264 and secure his fifth TOUR title, and third of the season. Final round included an eagle at the par-5 second hole, along with seven birdies, including three straight to close the round and win the World Golf Championships-Bridgestone Invitational by five strokes over Zach Johnson. At 25 he earned the 25th win by a player in his 20s on TOUR in the season. Regained the No. 1 position in the FedExCup standings which he had held for a total of 10 weeks earlier in the season. Final-round 61 marked his career-low round on TOUR, bettering previous-best 63 by two strokes (63/R3/2015 Waste Management Phoenix Open, 63/R2/2015 BMW Championship). Was also the lowest final-round score, by three strokes, in any World Golf Championships event and matched the 18-hole record at the Bridgestone Invitational (Tiger Woods/R2/2000, Tiger Woods/R2/2013, Sergio Garcia/R2/2014). Became one of 12 players with multiple victories in World Golf Championships and joined Tiger Woods and Dustin Johnson with more than one WGC win in the same season. Also became first player from Japan to win the Bridgestone Invitational and the seventh international winner of the Akron event. Extended his record as the Japanese player with the most PGA TOUR wins.
  • U.S. Open: Closed with a 6-under 66 to finish T2 for his best finish in his fifth appearance at the U.S. Open at Erin Hills. Also shot 65 in the second round, one of a record five players (Paul Casey, Chez Reavie, Patrick Reed, Justin Thomas) to post 65 or better during the week. Performance moved him to No. 2 in the Official World Golf Ranking, the highest position for a player from Japan.
  • Waste Management Phoenix Open: Started his title defense at the Waste Management Phoenix Open with a bogey-free 6-under 65 in round one and stayed close to the lead with back-to-back rounds of 68 to enter Sunday in a tie for third. Closed the gap with an eagle at the third hole and birdies at the fifth and 13th holes, then took the solo lead with a birdie at the 15th before narrowly missing a 25-foot putt for the win in regulation at the 72nd hole. Went into a playoff with Webb Simpson at 17-under 267, where each recorded pars on the first three extra holes, before Matsuyama drained a putt from 10'6" to record his second consecutive victory at the event and his fourth career PGA TOUR title. In doing so, became the first Japanese player to earn four victories on the PGA TOUR, breaking out of a tie with Shigeki Maruyama.
  • SBS Tournament of Champions: Recorded a final-round, 3-under 70 to finish solo-second at the SBS Tournament of Champions, three strokes behind Justin Thomas. Marked his sixth top-two finish in his last six starts worldwide, with both runner-up efforts coming at the hands of Thomas. Marked the third runner-up finish of his PGA TOUR career (2015 Waste Management Phoenix Open, 2016 CIMB Classic, 2017 SBS Tournament of Champions). His 70 on Sunday snapped a streak of 13 consecutive rounds in the 60s on TOUR dating to his second-round 71 at the TOUR Championship.
  • Hero World Challenge: Second- and third-round leader posted a final-round 1-over 73 to win the Hero World Challenge by two strokes over Henrik Stenson. Entered the final round with a seven-stroke cushion over Stenson and Dustin Johnson, tying Jordan Spieth (2014) for the largest 54-hole lead in tournament history. The victory came in his third start at the Hero World Challenge (13th-2014, T17-2015, Won-2016) and was his fourth victory in his last five worldwide starts (non-team events).
  • ISPS HANDA World Cup of Golf: Finished T6 at the ISPS HANDA World Cup with teammate Ryo Ishikawa on the Japan team at Kingston Heath Golf Club in Australia in late-November.
  • World Golf Championships-HSBC Champions: Began the final round of the World Golf Championships-HSBC Champions with a three-shot lead over Russell Knox and birdied six holes against zero bogeys to defeat Henrik Stenson and Daniel Berger by seven shots, the largest margin of victory in HSBC Champions history. Recorded 29 birdies over the week and played his last 45 holes bogey free. Marked his third victory on the PGA TOUR at the age of 24 years, 8 months, 5 days. Became the first Japanese golfer and first player from Asia to win a World Golf Championships event. Earned 550 FedExCup points to take the lead in the standings for the first time in his career.
  • CIMB Classic: Posted a bogey-free, 6-under 66 in the final round of the CIMB Classic to finish solo-second to champion Justin Thomas at 20-under 268. Birdied his last two holes Sunday to claim the runner-up finish in his first start of the season. Began the final round at TPC Kuala Lumpur trailing 54-hole leader Anirban Lahiri by five strokes, before finishing three strokes behind Thomas. With the runner-up, moved into the top 10 in the Official World Golf Ranking for the first time in his career.

Advanced to the FedExCup Playoffs for the third consecutive time in his career, making it to the TOUR Championship each time. Entered the Playoffs finale in the No. 17 position in the FedExCup standings and finished fifth at East Lake to end his season No. 13 in the FedExCup standings. Recorded 14 top-25 finishes from 23 starts. Of those, five were top-five showings, including a win at the Waste Management Phoenix Open.

  • Dunlop Phoenix: At the Japan Golf Tour's Dunlop Phoenix in November, had a strong outing after opening with a 1-under 70. Fired a second-round 68 and was tied for 11th at the halfway mark, three shots behind leaders Yoshinori Fujimoto and Thanyakon Khrongpha. Despite a 4-under 67 Saturday, fell four shots behind Yusaku Miyazato with a round to play. Matched his 67 on the final day only to come up to shots shy of Miyazato's winning 14-under total. Settled for a T2 with Fujimoto.
  • Taiheiyo Masters: At 23-under-par 265, recorded a dominating seven-stroke victory at the Taiheiyo Masters, held at the base of Mount Fiji in Japan. The win, featuring the same margin of victory as his win in his last start at the WGC-HSBC Champions, marked his third win in his last four starts worldwide.
  • Japan Open Golf Championship: At 5-under 275, including a final-round 1-under 69, won the Japan Open Golf Championship in mid-October by three strokes over Yuta Ikeda and Lee Kyoung-hoon. Carried a one-stroke lead into the final round over Ikeda and Lee following a third-round 65. It marked his first major title on the Japan Golf Tour.
  • TOUR Championship: Shared the first-round lead with Dustin Johnson and Kevin Chappell at the TOUR Championship after firing 4-under 66 in the opening round, his low round at East Lake in 12 trips around the layout.
  • Wyndham Championship: In his fourth start in the Wyndham Championship, finished T3, highlighted by a second-round 64, his low round of the season. Marked his seventh top-10 of the season. Entered the week 19th in the FedExCup Standings and moved to 12th heading into the FedExCup Playoffs.
  • PGA Championship: Posted four rounds in the 60s at the PGA Championship at Baltusrol GC to claim a share of fourth place with Branden Grace and Brooks Koepka. Birdied the par-5 18th hole all four rounds en route to his 9-under 271 total.
  • THE PLAYERS Championship: Teed off in the final pairing of the final round at TPC Sawgrass alongside eventual-champion Jason Day seeking to become the first player from Japan to win THE PLAYERS Championship. Was 3-over after three holes, eventually posting 73 to finish T7 at 9-under. Third-round 5-under 67 was one of just three rounds in the 60s (65/Ken Duke, 69/Graeme McDowell) on a day where the scoring average was above 75.
  • Masters Tournament: A year after claiming fifth-place honors at the Masters, returned to Augusta National, where he found himself once again in contention. At 1-under 215 through 54 holes, trailed Jordan Spieth by just two strokes. A final-round, 1-over 73 resulted in a T7 with Soren Kjeldsen and Matthew Fitzpatrick.
  • Arnold Palmer Invitational presented by MasterCard: Third top-10 of the season came at the Arnold Palmer Invitational presented by MasterCard, where four under-par rounds led to a 72-hole score of 11-under 277, good for T6 honors. Only previous appearance at the Arnold Palmer Invitational led to a T21 finish (2015).
  • Waste Management Phoenix Open: Began the final round of the Waste Management Phoenix Open trailing Danny Lee by three strokes. Sank a clutch birdie on the 72nd hole at TPC Scottsdale to force sudden death with Rickie Fowler. On the fourth extra hole, the par-4 17th, took advantage of Fowler's errant tee shot into the hazard with a par to claim his second career PGA TOUR victory. The win came on the heels of a T2 finish in 2015 and T4 finish in 2014 in the event.
  • CIMB Classic: Following a T17 in the season-opening Frys.com Open, recorded his first top-10 of the season, at the CIMB Classic, finishing fifth for his best showing in Malaysia in three starts.

Advanced to the FedExCup Playoffs, thanks to nine top-10 finishes in 25 starts. Made his way through all four events in the Playoffs and ended his season ranked 16th in the FedExCup standings.

  • Presidents Cup: Went 2-1-1 in his four Presidents Cup matches in the International team's 15½-14½ loss in South Korea.
  • BMW Championship: Posted a final-round, 5-under 66 to finish T7 at the BMW Championship in the third FedExCup Playoffs event, nine strokes behind winner Jason Day. Week was highlighted by a second-round, 8-under 63. It marked his ninth top-10 finish on TOUR for the season.
  • Dunlop Fukushima Open: On the Japan Golf Tour in August, earned a top-10 at the Dunlop Fukushima Open, shooting a final-round 64 to T9.
  • the Memorial Tournament presented by Nationwide: As the defending champion, opened the Memorial Tournament with an 8-under 64 to share the first-round lead. Followed with rounds of 71-71-70 to finish at 13-under for a three-way T5.
  • Crowne Plaza Invitational at Colonial: Finished T10 at the 2014 Crowne Plaza Invitational in the only other occasion.
  • Masters Tournament: Finished fifth at the Masters Tournament to record his first top-25 in four starts at Augusta National. Notched his third top-10 in a major championship with the others coming at the 2013 U.S. Open (T10) and the 2013 Open Championship (T6).
  • Northern Trust Open: Finished T4 with three others at the Northern Trust Open after firing a 4-under 67 in the final round, missing on the James Hahn-Dustin Johnson-Paul Casey playoff by a stroke. It was his fifth top-10 of the season.
  • Waste Management Phoenix Open: Temporarily got to 15-under on the inward nine Sunday to take the outright lead at the Waste Management Phoenix Open. A bogey at No. 14 proved too costly, and he was unable to recover. At 14-under 270, he finished T2 with Ryan Palmer and Bubba Watson. Made the highlight reel Sunday with a hole-out for an eagle-2 from 129 yards on the first hole. The appearance at TPC Scottsdale was his second consecutive, having finished T4 in 2014.
  • Hyundai Tournament of Champions: Entered the final round of the Hyundai Tournament of Champions tied with Jimmy Walker, at 17-under 202. Finished T3 in his first start at the event. Followed a third-round, 7-under-66 (his second consecutive 66) with a final-round 70 that left him one stroke out of the Patrick Reed-Jimmy Walker playoff. Missed a 6-foot, 10-inch birdie putt on the 72nd hole that would have placed him in the extra session. Marked the second time that he has led or shared the lead through 54 holes of a PGA TOUR event.
  • Frys.com Open: For the second consecutive year, claimed a T3 at the Frys.com Open, this time finishing three strokes behind champion Sangmoon Bae. Birdies at the 71st and 72nd holes resulted in the T3.

First full PGA TOUR season included 20 made cuts in 24 starts, with a victory at the Memorial Tournament and a T3 finish at the Frys.com Open marking the best of his four top-10 finishes. Ended the season No. 28 in the FedExCup standings. Closed out the season by advancing all the way to the final Playoffs event, finishing T30 at The Barclays, T57 at the Deutsche Bank Championship, T20 at the BMW Championship and 22nd at the TOUR Championship by Coca-Cola.

  • the Memorial Tournament presented by Nationwide Insurance: Won first career title, at the Memorial Tournament. In his 26th TOUR start, supplanted Tiger Woods as the event's youngest winner (22 years, 3 months, 7 days). Began the final round two strokes back, birdied the par-4 18th hole for the fourth day in a row to force sudden death with Kevin Na. Na had posted his 13-under score nearly two hours earlier. In the playoff, made a par at No. 18, the first extra hole, for the win. Became the fourth Japanese-born player to win on TOUR, joining Ryuji Imada (2008 AT&T Classic), Shigeki Maruyama (2001 Greater Milwaukee Open, 2002 HP Byron Nelson Championship, 2003 Wyndham Championship) and Isao Aoki (1983 Sony Open in Hawaii). Became only the fifth player to make the Memorial Tournament his maiden PGA TOUR victory, joining Keith Fergus (1981), Kenny Perry (1991), Tom Lehman (1994) and Justin Rose (2010). Other than Roger Maltbie, who won the inaugural edition of the Memorial Tournament in 1976, is the first player to win the event in his first start. In his first experience competing in The Presidents Cup, Matsuyama went 1-3-1 at Muirfield Village GC in 2013. Became the eighth International player to win at Muirfield Village GC.
  • Crowne Plaza Invitational at Colonial: Finished T10 in his first career start at the Crowne Plaza Invitational at Colonial. For the first time on TOUR, held a share of the third-round lead but a final-round, 1-over 71 dropped him out of contention.
  • Waste Management Phoenix Open: In just his 16th PGA TOUR start, and at age 21 years, 11 months, 8 days, finished T4 at the Waste Management Phoenix Open in his attempt to supplant Jerry Pate (23 years, 3 months, 3 days) as the youngest winner at the event. He and champion, Kevin Stadler, were the only players to record all four rounds in the 60s during the week.
  • Casio World Open: Took a two-shot lead into the final round of the Casio World Open. Led Koumei Oda and Yuta Ikeda. Shot a final-round, 2-under 70 on the final day to hold off Ikeda by a shot at Kochi Kuroshio CC. The victory was his fourth Japan Golf Tour title of the year and his fifth overall.
  • Frys.com Open: After an opening-round, 1-under 70, closed with rounds of 66-68-66 for a T3 finish at the Frys.com Open, placing three strokes behind champion Jimmy Walker in his debut as a PGA TOUR member. Since making his first PGA TOUR professional start at the 2013 U.S. Open, the finish at CordeValle was his seventh consecutive top-25 performance.

Finished in the top 125 of the FedExCup points and money list as a non-member. Finished with 384 FedExCup points on the non-member points list, which would rank No. 125. Also finished with $771,640 in official money, including a World Golf Championship start, well ahead of No. 125 Greg Chalmers ($595,483). Will take up membership on the PGA TOUR for the 2013-14 season. Made the cut in all six of his starts as a professional to go with one missed cut as an amateur.


Civil Rights Timeline

July 26

President Truman signs Executive Order 9981, which states, "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin."

May 17

The Supreme Court rules on the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans., unanimously agreeing that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. The ruling paves the way for large-scale desegregation. The decision overturns the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that sanctioned "separate but equal" segregation of the races, ruling that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." It is a victory for NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall, who will later return to the Supreme Court as the nation's first black justice.

Fourteen-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till is visiting family in Mississippi when he is kidnapped, brutally beaten, shot, and dumped in the Tallahatchie River for allegedly whistling at a white woman. Two white men, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant, are arrested for the murder and acquitted by an all-white jury. They later boast about committing the murder in a Look magazine interview. The case becomes a cause célèbre of the civil rights movement.

Dec. 1

(Montgomery, Ala.) NAACP member Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat at the front of the "colored section" of a bus to a white passenger, defying a southern custom of the time. In response to her arrest the Montgomery black community launches a bus boycott, which will last for more than a year, until the buses are desegregated Dec. 21, 1956. As newly elected president of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA), Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., is instrumental in leading the boycott.

Jan. Feb.

Martin Luther King, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, of which King is made the first president. The SCLC becomes a major force in organizing the civil rights movement and bases its principles on nonviolence and civil disobedience. According to King, it is essential that the civil rights movement not sink to the level of the racists and hatemongers who oppose them: "We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline," he urges.

(Little Rock, Ark.) Formerly all-white Central High School learns that integration is easier said than done. Nine black students are blocked from entering the school on the orders of Governor Orval Faubus. President Eisenhower sends federal troops and the National Guard to intervene on behalf of the students, who become known as the "Little Rock Nine."

Feb. 1

(Greensboro, N.C.) Four black students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College begin a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter. Although they are refused service, they are allowed to stay at the counter. The event triggers many similar nonviolent protests throughout the South. Six months later the original four protesters are served lunch at the same Woolworth's counter. Student sit-ins would be effective throughout the Deep South in integrating parks, swimming pools, theaters, libraries, and other public facilities.

April

(Raleigh, N.C.) The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is founded at Shaw University, providing young blacks with a place in the civil rights movement. The SNCC later grows into a more radical organization, especially under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael (1966??1967).

May 4

Over the spring and summer, student volunteers begin taking bus trips through the South to test out new laws that prohibit segregation in interstate travel facilities, which includes bus and railway stations. Several of the groups of "freedom riders," as they are called, are attacked by angry mobs along the way. The program, sponsored by The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), involves more than 1,000 volunteers, black and white.

Oct. 1

James Meredith becomes the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Violence and riots surrounding the incident cause President Kennedy to send 5,000 federal troops.

April 16

Martin Luther King is arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, Ala. he writes his seminal "Letter from Birmingham Jail," arguing that individuals have the moral duty to disobey unjust laws.

During civil rights protests in Birmingham, Ala., Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene "Bull" Connor uses fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators. These images of brutality, which are televised and published widely, are instrumental in gaining sympathy for the civil rights movement around the world.

June 12

(Jackson, Miss.) Mississippi's NAACP field secretary, 37-year-old Medgar Evers, is murdered outside his home. Byron De La Beckwith is tried twice in 1964, both trials resulting in hung juries. Thirty years later he is convicted for murdering Evers.

Aug. 28

(Washington, D.C.) About 200,000 people join the March on Washington. Congregating at the Lincoln Memorial, participants listen as Martin Luther King delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.

Sept. 15

(Birmingham, Ala.) Four young girls (Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins) attending Sunday school are killed when a bomb explodes at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, a popular location for civil rights meetings. Riots erupt in Birmingham, leading to the deaths of two more black youths.

Jan. 23

The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax, which originally had been instituted in 11 southern states after Reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote.

Summer

The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a network of civil rights groups that includes CORE and SNCC, launches a massive effort to register black voters during what becomes known as the Freedom Summer. It also sends delegates to the Democratic National Convention to protest??and attempt to unseat??the official all-white Mississippi contingent.

July 2

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction, the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin. The law also provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation.

Aug. 4

(Neshoba Country, Miss.) The bodies of three civil-rights workers??two white, one black??are found in an earthen dam, six weeks into a federal investigation backed by President Johnson. James E. Chaney, 21 Andrew Goodman, 21 and Michael Schwerner, 24, had been working to register black voters in Mississippi, and, on June 21, had gone to investigate the burning of a black church. They were arrested by the police on speeding charges, incarcerated for several hours, and then released after dark into the hands of the Ku Klux Klan, who murdered them.

Feb. 21

(Harlem, N.Y.) Malcolm X, black nationalist and founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity, is shot to death. It is believed the assailants are members of the Black Muslim faith, which Malcolm had recently abandoned in favor of orthodox Islam.

March 7

(Selma, Ala.) Blacks begin a march to Montgomery in support of voting rights but are stopped at the Pettus Bridge by a police blockade. Fifty marchers are hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them. The incident is dubbed "Bloody Sunday" by the media. The march is considered the catalyst for pushing through the voting rights act five months later.

Aug. 10

Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965, making it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote. Literacy tests, poll taxes, and other such requirements that were used to restrict black voting are made illegal.

Aug. 11??17, 1965

(Watts, Calif.) Race riots erupt in a black section of Los Angeles.

Sept. 24, 1965

Asserting that civil rights laws alone are not enough to remedy discrimination, President Johnson issues Executive Order 11246, which enforces affirmative action for the first time. It requires government contractors to "take affirmative action" toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment.

April 19

Stokely Carmichael, a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), coins the phrase "black power" in a speech in Seattle. He defines it as an assertion of black pride and "the coming together of black people to fight for their liberation by any means necessary." The term's radicalism alarms many who believe the civil rights movement's effectiveness and moral authority crucially depend on nonviolent civil disobedience.

June 12

In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. Sixteen states that still banned interracial marriage at the time are forced to revise their laws.

Major race riots take place in Newark (July 12??16) and Detroit (July 23??30).

April 4

(Memphis, Tenn.) Martin Luther King, at age 39, is shot as he stands on the balcony outside his hotel room. Escaped convict and committed racist James Earl Ray is convicted of the crime.

April 11

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.

April 20

The Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upholds busing as a legitimate means for achieving integration of public schools. Although largely unwelcome (and sometimes violently opposed) in local school districts, court-ordered busing plans in cities such as Charlotte, Boston, and Denver continue until the late 1990s.

March 22

Overriding President Reagan's veto, Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which expands the reach of non-discrimination laws within private institutions receiving federal funds.

Nov. 22

After two years of debates, vetoes, and threatened vetoes, President Bush reverses himself and signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991, strengthening existing civil rights laws and providing for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.

April 29

(Los Angeles, Calif.) The first race riots in decades erupt in south-central Los Angeles after a jury acquits four white police officers for the videotaped beating of African American Rodney King.

June 23

In the most important affirmative action decision since the 1978 Bakke case, the Supreme Court (5-4) upholds the University of Michigan Law School's policy, ruling that race can be one of many factors considered by colleges when selecting their students because it furthers "a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body."

June 21

The ringleader of the Mississippi civil rights murders (see Aug. 4, 1964), Edgar Ray Killen, is convicted of manslaughter on the 41st anniversary of the crimes.

October 24

Rosa Parks dies at age 92.

January 30

Coretta Scott King dies of a stroke at age 78.

February

Emmett Till's 1955 murder case, reopened by the Department of Justice in 2004, is officially closed. The two confessed murderers, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant, were dead of cancer by 1994, and prosecutors lacked sufficient evidence to pursue further convictions.

May 10

James Bonard Fowler, a former state trooper, is indicted for the murder of Jimmie Lee Jackson 40 years after Jackson's death. The 1965 killing lead to a series of historic civil rights protests in Selma, Ala.

January

Senator Edward Kennedy (D-MA) introduces the Civil Rights Act of 2008. Some of the proposed provisions include ensuring that federal funds are not used to subsidize discrimination, holding employers accountable for age discrimination, and improving accountability for other violations of civil rights and workers' rights.


Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths — United States, 2000�

The United States is experiencing an epidemic of drug overdose (poisoning) deaths. Since 2000, the rate of deaths from drug overdoses has increased 137%, including a 200% increase in the rate of overdose deaths involving opioids (opioid pain relievers and heroin). CDC analyzed recent multiple cause-of-death mortality data to examine current trends and characteristics of drug overdose deaths, including the types of opioids associated with drug overdose deaths. During 2014, a total of 47,055 drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States, representing a 1-year increase of 6.5%, from 13.8 per 100,000 persons in 2013 to 14.7 per 100,000 persons in 2014. The rate of drug overdose deaths increased significantly for both sexes, persons aged 25󈞘 years and ≥55 years, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, and in the Northeastern, Midwestern, and Southern regions of the United States. Rates of opioid overdose deaths also increased significantly, from 7.9 per 100,000 in 2013 to 9.0 per 100,000 in 2014, a 14% increase. Historically, CDC has programmatically characterized all opioid pain reliever deaths (natural and semisynthetic opioids, methadone, and other synthetic opioids) as "prescription" opioid overdoses (1). Between 2013 and 2014, the age-adjusted rate of death involving methadone remained unchanged however, the age-adjusted rate of death involving natural and semisynthetic opioid pain relievers, heroin, and synthetic opioids, other than methadone (e.g., fentanyl) increased 9%, 26%, and 80%, respectively. The sharp increase in deaths involving synthetic opioids, other than methadone, in 2014 coincided with law enforcement reports of increased availability of illicitly manufactured fentanyl, a synthetic opioid however, illicitly manufactured fentanyl cannot be distinguished from prescription fentanyl in death certificate data. These findings indicate that the opioid overdose epidemic is worsening. There is a need for continued action to prevent opioid abuse, dependence, and death, improve treatment capacity for opioid use disorders, and reduce the supply of illicit opioids, particularly heroin and illicit fentanyl.

The National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death mortality files were used to identify drug overdose deaths.* Drug overdose deaths were classified using the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), based on the ICD-10 underlying cause-of-death codes X40󈞘 (unintentional), X60󈞬 (suicide), X85 (homicide), or Y10–Y14 (undetermined intent) (2). Among the deaths with drug overdose as the underlying cause, the type of opioid involved is indicated by the following ICD-10 multiple cause-of-death codes: opioids (T40.0, T40.1, T40.2, T40.3, T40.4, or T40.6) natural and semisynthetic opioids (T40.2) methadone (T40.3) synthetic opioids, other than methadone (T40.4) and heroin (T40.1). Some deaths involve more than one type of opioid these deaths were included in the rates for each category (e.g., a death involving both a synthetic opioid and heroin would be included in the rates for synthetic opioid deaths and in the rates for heroin deaths). Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by applying age-specific death rates to the 2000 U.S standard population age distribution (3). Significance testing was based on the z-test at a significance level of 0.05.

During 2014, 47,055 drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States. Since 2000, the age-adjusted drug overdose death rate has more than doubled, from 6.2 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 14.7 per 100,000 in 2014 ( Figure 1) . The overall number and rate of drug overdose deaths increased significantly from 2013 to 2014, with an additional 3,073 deaths occurring in 2014 ( Table ), resulting in a 6.5% increase in the age-adjusted rate. From 2013 to 2014, statistically significant increases in drug overdose death rates were seen for both males and females, persons aged 25󈞎 years, 35󈞘 years, 55󈞬 years, and ≥65 years non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks and residents in the Northeast, Midwest and South Census Regions (Table). In 2014, the five states with the highest rates of drug overdose deaths were West Virginia (35.5 deaths per 100,000), New Mexico (27.3), New Hampshire (26.2), Kentucky (24.7) and Ohio (24.6). † States with statistically significant increases in the rate of drug overdose deaths from 2013 to 2014 included Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

In 2014, 61% (28,647, data not shown) of drug overdose deaths involved some type of opioid, including heroin. The age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths involving opioids increased significantly from 2000 to 2014, increasing 14% from 2013 (7.9 per 100,000) to 2014 (9.0) (Figure 1). From 2013 to 2014, the largest increase in the rate of drug overdose deaths involved synthetic opioids, other than methadone (e.g., fentanyl and tramadol), which nearly doubled from 1.0 per 100,000 to 1.8 per 100,000 ( Figure 2 ). Heroin overdose death rates increased by 26% from 2013 to 2014 and have more than tripled since 2010, from 1.0 per 100,000 in 2010 to 3.4 per 100,000 in 2014 (Figure 2). In 2014, the rate of drug overdose deaths involving natural and semisynthetic opioids (e.g., morphine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone), 3.8 per 100,000, was the highest among opioid overdose deaths, and increased 9% from 3.5 per 100,000 in 2013. The rate of drug overdose deaths involving methadone, a synthetic opioid classified separately from other synthetic opioids, was similar in 2013 and 2014.

Discussion

More persons died from drug overdoses in the United States in 2014 than during any previous year on record. From 2000 to 2014 nearly half a million persons in the United States have died from drug overdoses. In 2014, there were approximately one and a half times more drug overdose deaths in the United States than deaths from motor vehicle crashes (4). Opioids, primarily prescription pain relievers and heroin, are the main drugs associated with overdose deaths. In 2014, opioids were involved in 28,647 deaths, or 61% of all drug overdose deaths the rate of opioid overdoses has tripled since 2000. The 2014 data demonstrate that the United States' opioid overdose epidemic includes two distinct but interrelated trends: a 15-year increase in overdose deaths involving prescription opioid pain relievers and a recent surge in illicit opioid overdose deaths, driven largely by heroin.

Natural and semisynthetic opioids, which include the most commonly prescribed opioid pain relievers, oxycodone and hydrocodone, continue to be involved in more overdose deaths than any other opioid type. Although this category of opioid drug overdose death had declined in 2012 compared with 2011, and had held steady in 2013, there was a 9% increase in 2014.

Drug overdose deaths involving heroin continued to climb sharply, with heroin overdoses more than tripling in 4 years. This increase mirrors large increases in heroin use across the country (5) and has been shown to be closely tied to opioid pain reliever misuse and dependence. Past misuse of prescription opioids is the strongest risk factor for heroin initiation and use, specifically among persons who report past-year dependence or abuse (5). The increased availability of heroin, combined with its relatively low price (compared with diverted prescription opioids) and high purity appear to be major drivers of the upward trend in heroin use and overdose (6).

The rate of drug overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids nearly doubled between 2013 and 2014. This category includes both prescription synthetic opioids (e.g., fentanyl and tramadol) and non-pharmaceutical fentanyl manufactured in illegal laboratories (illicit fentanyl). Toxicology tests used by coroners and medical examiners are unable to distinguish between prescription and illicit fentanyl. Based on reports from states and drug seizure data, however, a substantial portion of the increase in synthetic opioid deaths appears to be related to increased availability of illicit fentanyl (7), although this cannot be confirmed with mortality data. For example, five jurisdictions (Florida, Maryland, Maine, Ohio, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) that reported sharp increases in illicit fentanyl seizures, and screened persons who died from a suspected drug overdose for fentanyl, detected similarly sharp increases in fentanyl-related deaths (7). § Finally, illicit fentanyl is often combined with heroin or sold as heroin. Illicit fentanyl might be contributing to recent increases in drug overdose deaths involving heroin. Therefore, increases in illicit fentanyl-associated deaths might represent an emerging and troubling feature of the rise in illicit opioid overdoses that has been driven by heroin.

The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, several factors related to death investigation might affect estimates of death rates involving specific drugs. At autopsy, toxicological laboratory tests might be performed to determine the type of drugs present however, the substances tested for and circumstances under which the tests are performed vary by jurisdiction. Second, in 2013 and 2014, 22% and 19% of drug overdose deaths, respectively, did not include information on the death certificate about the specific types of drugs involved. The percent of overdose deaths with specific drugs identified on the death certificate varies widely by state. Some of these deaths might have involved opioids. This increase in the reporting of specific drugs in 2014 might have contributed to some of the observed increases in drug overdose death rates involving different types of opioids from 2013 to 2014. Finally, some heroin deaths might be misclassified as morphine because morphine and heroin are metabolized similarly (8), which might result in an underreporting of heroin overdose deaths.

To reverse the epidemic of opioid drug overdose deaths and prevent opioid-related morbidity, efforts to improve safer prescribing of prescription opioids must be intensified. Opioid pain reliever prescribing has quadrupled since 1999 and has increased in parallel with overdoses involving the most commonly used opioid pain relievers (1). CDC has developed a draft guideline for the prescribing of opioids for chronic pain to address this need. ¶

In addition, efforts are needed to protect persons already dependent on opioids from overdose and other harms. This includes expanding access to and use of naloxone (a safe and effective antidote for all opioid-related overdoses)** and increasing access to medication-assisted treatment, in combination with behavioral therapies (9). Efforts to ensure access to integrated prevention services, including access to syringe service programs when available, is also an important consideration to prevent the spread of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections from injection drug use.

Public health agencies, medical examiners and coroners, and law enforcement agencies can work collaboratively to improve detection of outbreaks of drug overdose deaths involving illicit opioids (including heroin and illicit fentanyl) through improved investigation and testing as well as reporting and monitoring of specific drugs, and facilitate a rapid and effective response that can address this emerging threat to public health and safety (7). Efforts are needed to distinguish the drugs contributing to overdoses to better understand this trend.

1 Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.

Corresponding author: Rose A. Rudd, [email protected], 770-488-3712.

References

  1. Paulozzi LJ, Jones C, Mack K, Rudd R. Vital signs: overdoses of prescription opioid pain relievers—United States, 1999�. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 201160:1487󈟈.
  2. Bergen G, Chen LH, Warner M, Fingerhut LA. Injury in the United States: 2007 chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics 2008 Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/misc/injury2007.pdf.
  3. Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Kochanek KD. Deaths: final data for 2010. National vital statistics reports. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics 2013. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_04.pdf.
  4. CDC. Wide-ranging online data for epidemiologic research (WONDER). Atlanta, GA: CDC, National Center for Health Statistics 2015. Available at http://wonder.cdc.gov.
  5. Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. The changing face of heroin use in the United States: a retrospective analysis of the past fifty years. JAMA Psychiatry 201471:821𔃄.
  6. CDC. Increases in fentanyl drug confiscations and fentanyl-related overdose fatalities. HAN Health Advisory. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC 2015. Available at http://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00384.asp.
  7. Davis GG. Complete republication: National Association of Medical Examiners position paper: recommendations for the investigation, diagnosis, and certification of deaths related to opioid drugs. J Med Toxicol 201410:100𔃄.
  8. Volkow ND, Frieden TR, Hyde PS, Cha SS. Medication-assisted therapies—tackling the opioid-overdose epidemic. N Engl J Med 2014370:2063𔃄.

What is already known on this topic?

The rate for drug overdose deaths has increased approximately 140% since 2000, driven largely by opioid overdose deaths. After increasing since the 1990s, deaths involving the most commonly prescribed opioid pain relievers (i.e., natural and semisynthetic opioids) declined slightly in 2012 and remained steady in 2013, showing some signs of progress. Heroin overdose deaths have been sharply increasing since 2010.

What is added by this report?

Drug overdose deaths increased significantly from 2013 to 2014. Increases in opioid overdose deaths were the main factor in the increase in drug overdose deaths. The death rate from the most commonly prescribed opioid pain relievers (natural and semisynthetic opioids) increased 9%, the death rate from heroin increased 26%, and the death rate from synthetic opioids, a category that includes illicitly manufactured fentanyl and synthetic opioid pain relievers other than methadone, increased 80%. Nearly every aspect of the opioid overdose death epidemic worsened in 2014.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Efforts to encourage safer prescribing of opioid pain relievers should be strengthened. Other key prevention strategies include expanding availability and access to naloxone (an antidote for all opioid-related overdoses), increasing access to medication-assisted treatment in combination with behavioral therapies, and increasing access to syringe service programs to prevent the spread of hepatitis C virus infection and human immunodeficiency virus infections. Public health agencies, medical examiners and coroners, and law enforcement agencies can work collaboratively to improve detection of and response to outbreaks associated with drug overdoses related to illicit opioids.

FIGURE 1. Age-adjusted rate* of drug overdose deathsand drug overdose deaths involving opioids §,¶ — United States, 2000�

Source: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality file.

* Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by applying age-specific death rates to the 2000 U.S. standard population age distribution.

† Drug overdose deaths are identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision underlying cause-of-death codes X40–X44, X60–X64, X85, and Y10–Y14.

§ Drug overdose deaths involving opioids are drug overdose deaths with a multiple cause-of-death code of T40.0, T40.1, T40.2, T40.3, T40.4, or T40.6. Approximately one fifth of drug overdose deaths lack information on the specific drugs involved. Some of these deaths might involve opioids.

¶ Opioids include drugs such as morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, heroin, methadone, fentanyl, and tramadol.

Alternate Text: The figure above is a line chart showing the age-adjusted rates of drug overdose deaths and drug overdose deaths involving opioids in the United States during 2000-2014.

FIGURE 2. Drug overdose deaths* involving opioids, †,§ by type of opioid— United States, 2000�

Source: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality file.

* Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by applying age-specific death rates to the 2000 U.S. standard population age distribution.

† Drug overdose deaths involving opioids are identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision underlying cause-of-death codes X40–X44, X60–X64, X85, and Y10–Y14 with a multiple cause code of T40.0, T40.1, T40.2, T40.3, T40.4, or T40.6.

§ Opioids include drugs such as morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, heroin, methadone, fentanyl, and tramadol.

¶ For each type of opioid, the multiple cause-of-death code was T40.1 for heroin, T40.2 for natural and semisynthetic opioids (e.g., oxycodone and hydrocodone), T40.3 for methadone, and T40.4 for synthetic opioids excluding methadone (e.g., fentanyl and tramadol). Deaths might involve more than one drug thus categories are not exclusive.

Alternate Text: The figure above is a line chart showing drug overdose deaths involving opioids, by type of opioid, in the United States during 2000-2014.

TABLE. Number and age-adjusted rates of drug overdose deaths,* by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin,Census region, and state —United States, 2013 and 2014


NowRuz - Persian New Year 2570 (1390, 2011) First Day of Spring Check out Nowruz Count Down

A few days prior to the New Year, a special cover is spread on to the Persian carpet or on a table in every Persian household. This ceremonial table is called cloth of seven dishes, (each one beginning with the Persian letter cinn). The number seven has been sacred in Iran since the ancient times, and the seven dishes stand for the seven angelic heralds of life-rebirth, health, happiness, prosperity, joy, patience, and beauty.

  1. Sabzeh or sprouts, usually wheat or lentil representing rebirth.
  2. Samanu is a pudding in which common wheat sprouts are transformed and given new life as a sweet, creamy pudding and represents the ultimate sophistication of Persian cooking.


Before The Movies: The New Founding Father of America Rise

The New Founding Fathers of America took office in 2014 in the wake of total economic collapse. The preceding specifics are never detailed but it presumably extends from the 2008 crash. Whatever happened, the United States was thrown into chaos and this new, alternate party rose from outside the traditional two-party system. But, while their victory heralded a new dawn, the NFFA were still faced with age-old problems. America was still in substantial debt, and not increasing taxes to keep the pinched lower classes happy would only increase that.

This was where the idea of removing parts of the population came in. The question was how to do it in a public-pleasing manner. Enter The Purge: a social experiment where all crime is made legal for 12 hours. Envisioned by The Architect (Marisa Tomei), it's an attempt to get America's inherent aggression out by extreme violence, although the NFFA see it as a way to manipulate the lowest (and most-expensive) rungs of society into destroying themselves.

The 28th Amendment is ratified in 2016, leading to a proto experimental Purge the next year. By this time, the NFFA needs some control measures to maintain their flimsy totalitarian rule.


Premier League FIFA 18 Ratings Refresh

WINTER UPGRADES
David De Gea – GK – Manchester United 90 → 91
Eden Hazard – LW – Chelsea 90 → 91
Kevin De Bruyne – CAM – Manchester City 89 → 91
N’Golo Kante – CDM – Chelsea 87 → 88
Christian Eriksen – CAM – Tottenham Hotspur 87 → 88
Paul Pogba – CM – Manchester United 87 → 88
David Silva – CAM – Manchester City 87 → 89
Harry Kane – ST – Tottenham Hotspur 86 → 88
César Azpilicueta – CB – Chelsea 85 → 86
Alvaro Morata – ST – Chelsea 84 → 85
Nicolas Otamendi – CB – Manchester City 83 → 85
Mohamed Salah – RW – Liverpool 83 → 85
Nemanja Matic – CDM – Manchester United 83 → 84
Kyle Walker – RB – Manchester City 83 → 84
Roberto Firmino – ST – Liverpool 83 → 84
Ederson – GK – Manchester City 83 → 84
Riyad Mahrez- RM – Leicester City 83 → 84
Raheem Sterling – RW – Manchester City 82 → 84
Leroy Sané – LW – Manchester City 82 → 84
Anthony Martial – LM – Manchester United 82 → 83
Heung Min Son – LM – Tottenham Hotspur 82 → 83
Gabriel Jesus – ST – Manchester City 81 → 83
Marcus Rashford – LM – Manchester United 79 → 81
Fernandinho – CDM – Manchester City 82 → 85
Wilfried Zaha – RM – Crystal Palace 81 → 82
Marcos Alonso – LWB – Chelsea 81 → 82
Andreas Christensen – CB – Chelsea 81 → 82
Sead Kolašinac – LWB – Arsenal 80 → 81
John Stones – CB – Manchester City 79 → 80
Phil Jones – CB – Manchester United 79 → 81
Cenk Tosun – ST – Everton 78 → 80
Jesse Lingard – CAM – Manchester United 78 → 80
Ben Davies – LB – Tottenham Hotspur 78 → 80
Aaron Mooy – CM – Huddersfield Town 77 → 78
Eric Choupo-Moting- LM – Stoke City 77 → 78
Jordan Pickford – GK – Everton 77 → 79
Jürgen Locadia – ST – Brighton & Hove Albion 76 → 77
Arthur Masuaku – LWB – West Ham United 75 → 76
Andrew Roberton – LB – Liverpool 75 → 76
Christian Atsu – LM – Newcastle United 75 → 76
Nathan Aké – CB – Bournemouth 75 → 77
Ashley Young – LB – Manchester United 75 → 77
Harry Maguire – CB – Leicester City 75 → 79
Demarai Gray – LM – Leicester City 74 → 75
Laurent Depoitre – ST – Huddersfield Town 74 → 75
Alex Iwobi – LM – Arsenal 74 → 76
Chris Wood – ST – Burnley 74 → 76
Christopher Schindler – CB – Huddersfield Town 73 → 75
Jamaal Lascelles – CB – Newcastle United 73 → 76
Richarlison – LW – Watford 73 → 76
Jóhann Gudmundsson – RM – Burnley 73 → 76
James Tarkowski – CB – Burnley 73 → 78
Harry Winks – CM – Tottenham Hotspur 72 → 75
Moritz Bauer – RB – Stoke City 70 → 75
Ruben Loftus-Cheek – CAM – Crystal Palace 69 → 74
Ahmed Hegazi – CB – West Bromwich Albion 68 → 75
Nick Pope – GK – Burnley 68 → 75
Dominic Calvert-Lewin – ST – Everton 65 → 71
Alexander Sørloth – ST – Crystal Palace 69 → 71
Guido Carrillo – ST – Southampton 74 → 75


Major Events Calendar Of 2014

The year 2014 saw many important events. While some received a warm welcome, some were not quite pleasant. Here is a compilation of the 2014 events that created a stir and dominated the world's attention in 2014.

It has been a downhill ride for Michael Schumacher ever since he met with a ski accident on December 29, 2013. After a severe brain injury put him off the track and he slipped into coma, another misfortune befell him recently when his sponsors decided to turn back on him. Read more.

Mistaking his model girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp for a possible intruder, Oscar Pistorius shot four bullets through the cubicle of the toilet and eventually killed her. Read more.

A day after Michael Brown, an 18-year-old African-American was shot by Darren Wilson, a 28-year-old white police officer, a series of angry protests and civil disorder ensued in and around Ferguson. Read more.

On the fateful night of 14-15 April 2014, Islamist militants abducted around 276 female students from a government school in the town of Chibok, Nigeria. Boko Haram, an Islamic Jihadist and terrorist organization claimed responsibility for the mass kidnapping of school girls. Read more.

What started as a normal day for school kids ended with a massacre on 16 December 2014. The Army Public School in the city of Peshawar became the target of the Taliban militants. Read more.

On August 15, 2014 Panama celebrated 100th anniversary of opening of its canal. It was on August 15, 1914 when Panama Canal—a global trade route—was opened, which was at the time marked as a magnificent event in the U.S. More than 1 million ships have crossed the canal ever since. Read more.

The Thai General Election held on 2 February 2014 was declared null and void owing to the fact that the election was not completed on the same day throughout the nation. Read more.

Tagged as the youngest Prime Minister of Italy and ranked the third most influential under 40 person in the world, by Fortune magazine, Matteo Renzi's charismatic personality and promises raised much hope and expectations in his people.. Read more.

In 2014, India, the world's largest democratic nation, went to the polls for electing its new government. The Bharatiya Janata Party turned the tables in its favor and India saw the return of the NDA regime. It was believed that the anti-incumbency mood had gone against the Congress that witnessed perhaps the most humiliating defeat. Media reports were rife with the suggestion that people voted against corruption, misgovernance and dynastic rule.

Free of coalition politics, the NDA regime started off on a decisive note launching development campaigns and focusing on stabilizing country's wobbly economy.

A striking event of the year 2014, which drew our attention for months, is the violent protests in Ukraine and Crimea following the Ukrainian president's decision to abandon a deal with Europe. Read more.

“Should Scotland be an independent country?” A question which raised major concerns in Scotland, a question which was to change the face of the country and a question which made many wait with bated breath for the past few months - the question of the Scottish Independence Referendum. Read more.

The Berlin wall was constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with an intention to completely separate West Berlin from the neighboring East Germany and East Berlin. Read more.

ISIS, an abbreviation for the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, is a Sunni, extremist, jihadist group based in Iraq and Syria. Read more.

After being under the control of the British for decades, Hong Kong was handed over to China in 1997 as a part of the1984 agreement between China and Britain. Read more.

The exchange of fire between Israel & Palestine is not a new phenomenon.. The conflict dates back to the year 2004 when a series of battles was fought between the Israel Defense Forces and Palestinian militants. Read more.

The intended gap of four years ended in 2014, which graced the most awaited event: The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. The event commenced on February 7 and terminated on 23 February 2014. Read more.

The 20th Football World Cup took place in Brazil, the host country. This biggest football event commenced on 12 June 2014 and concluded on 13 July 2014. Read more.

Scotland hosted the 2014 XX Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. The nation hosted it for the third time. It was the largest multi-sport event ever held in Scotland with close to 4,950 athletes from 71 countries exhibited their prowess by competing in 18 different sports, The event was held over 11 days from 23 July to 3 August, 2014.

Sports persons competed in various disciplines including athletics, shooting, lawn bowls, swimming, and tennis. The Queen's Baton Relay that started off in October 2013 passed through several Commonwealth nations and concluded on the day of the Opening Ceremony of the Glasgow Games.

The previous Commonwealth Games was held at Delhi in 2010.

The 17th Asian Games or XVIIth Asiad was held in Incheon, South Korea from 19 September to 4 October, 2014. The Asian Games is the largest sporting event held in Asia. 'Diversity Shines Here' was the official slogan of the 2014 Asian Games.

It was the third time that South Korea hosted this event. In all, 28 of the official Olympic sports including golf, swimming, and shooting, were played across 103 venues. Apart from this, the Asian Games also featured eight non-Olympic sports popular in Asian countries, such as wushu, cricket, kabaddi, and karate.

In the world of cricket, one name that will be forever etched in the minds of the cricketers and the fans is Phil Hughes. He was an Australian cricketer who played both in Tests and One-Day International cricket along with domestic cricket for South Australia and Worcestershire. Hughes’ full name is Phillip Joel Hughes and he was born on 30 November 1988 in Macksville, New South Wales, Australia. This left handed batsman made his test debut at a young age of 20. Read more.

In what is termed as the biggest acquisition for a social media company, Facebook acquired WhatsApp, the mobile messaging service for $19 billion ($4 billion in cash, $3 billion in restricted shares, and around $12 billion in Facebook stock). Read more.

In the biggest online sale ever in a single day, Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. reported more than $9 billion in sales on November 11, 2014. Read more.


March 21, 2014 Day 61 of the Sixth Year - History

. 26 2.30. . 26 2.31. . 27 2.32. . 28 2.33. . 28 2.34. . 32 2.35. . 33 2.36. . 34 2.37. . 35 2.38. . 35 2.39.

. 36 2.40. . 38 2.41. . 38 2.42. . 39 Reschke Informational [Page 2] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.43. . 39 2.44. . 39 2.45. . 40 3. Escaping for Use in XML . 42 4. Special Unicode Code Points . 42 5. Including Files . 43 6. Internationalization Considerations . 44 7. Security Considerations . 44 8. IANA Considerations . 44 8.1. Internet Media Type Registration . 44 9. References . 46 9.1. Normative References . 46 9.2. Informative References . 46 Appendix A. Front-Page ("Boilerplate") Generation . 50 A.1. The "category" Attribute . 50 A.2. The "ipr" Attribute . 50 A.2.1. Current Values: "*trust200902" . 51 A.2.2. Historic Values . 52 A.3. The "submissionType" Attribute . 54 A.4. The "consensus" Attribute . 55 Appendix B. Changes from RFC 2629 ("v1") . 56 B.1. Removed Elements . 56 B.2. Changed Defaults . 56 B.3. Changed Elements . 57 B.4. New Elements . 57 Appendix C. RELAX NG Schema . 58 C.1. Checking Validity . 65 IAB Members at the Time of Approval . 66 Acknowledgments . 66 Index . 67 Author's Address . 76 Reschke Informational [Page 3] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 1. Introduction This document describes version 2 ("v2") of the "xml2rfc" vocabulary: an XML-based language ("Extensible Markup Language" [XML]) used for writing RFCs [RFC7322] and Internet-Drafts [IDGUIDE]. Version 2 represents the state of the vocabulary (as implemented by several tools and as used by the RFC Editor) around 2014. It obsoletes the original version ("v1") [RFC2629], which contained the original language definition and which was subsequently extended. Many of the changes leading to version 2 have been described in "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML (revised)" [V1rev], but that document has not been updated since 2008. Processing Instructions (Section 2.6 of [XML]) generally are specific to a given processor and thus are not considered to be part of the vocabulary. See Section 4.1 of [TCLReadme] for a list of the Processing Instructions supported by the first implementation of an xml2rfc processor. Note that the vocabulary contains certain constructs that might not be used when generating the final text however, they can provide useful data for other uses (such as index generation, populating a keyword database, or syntax checks). 1.1. Syntax Notation The XML vocabulary here is defined in prose, based on the RELAX NG schema [RNC] contained in Appendix C (specified in RELAX NG Compact Notation (RNC)). Note that the schema can be used for automated validity checks, but certain constraints are only described in prose (example: the conditionally required presence of the "abbrev" attribute). Reschke Informational [Page 4] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2. Elements The sections below describe all elements and their attributes. Note that attributes not labeled "mandatory" are optional. Except inside , horizontal whitespace and line breaks are collapsed into a single whitespace, and leading and trailing whitespace is trimmed off. 2.1. Contains the Abstract of the document. The Abstract ought to be self-contained and thus should not contain references or unexpanded abbreviations. See Section 4.3 of [RFC7322] for more information. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.19). Content model: One or more elements (Section 2.38) 2.2. Provides address information for the author. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.6). Content model: In this order: 1. One optional

element (Section 2.27) 2. One optional

(Section 2.39). Content model: In any order: o Text o elements (Section 2.45) o elements (Section 2.15) o elements (Section 2.20) o elements (Section 2.12) o elements (Section 2.36) 2.9. Gives the city name in a postal address. This element appears as a child element of

(Section 2.27). Content model: only text content. 2.10. Gives the postal region code. This element appears as a child element of

(Section 2.27). Content model: only text content. 2.11. Gives the country in a postal address. This element appears as a child element of

(Section 2.27). Content model: only text content. Reschke Informational [Page 12] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.12. Represents a comment. Comments can be used in a document while it is a work in progress. They usually appear (1) inline and visually highlighted, (2) at the end of the document (depending on file format and settings of the formatter), or (3) not at all (when generating an RFC). This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.3), (Section 2.8),

(Section 2.29), and (Section 2.38). Content model: only text content. 2.12.1. "anchor" Attribute Document-wide unique identifier for this comment. The processor will autogenerate an identifier when none is given. The value needs to be a valid XML "Name" (Section 2.3 of [XML]), additionally constrained to US-ASCII characters [USASCII]. 2.12.2. "source" Attribute Holds the "source" of a comment, such as the name or the initials of the person who made the comment. Reschke Informational [Page 13] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.13. Provides information about the publication date. Note that this element is used for the boilerplate of the document being produced, and also inside bibliographic references. In the "boilerplate" case, it defines the publication date, which, when producing Internet-Drafts, will be used for computing the expiration date (see Section 8 of [IDGUIDE]). When one or more of "year", "month", or "day" are left out, the processor will attempt to use the current system date if the attributes that are present are consistent with that date. Note that in this case, month names need to match the full (English) month name ("January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June", "July", "August", "September", "October", "November", or "December") in order for expiration calculations to work (some implementations might support additional formats, though). In the case of bibliographic references, the date information can have prose text for the month or year. For example, vague dates (year="ca. 2000"), date ranges (year="2012-2013"), non-specific months (month="Second quarter") and so on are allowed. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.19). Content model: this element does not have any contents. 2.13.1. "day" Attribute In the "boilerplate" case, the day of publication this is a number. Otherwise, an indication of the publication day, with the format not being restricted. 2.13.2. "month" Attribute In the "boilerplate" case, the month of publication this is the English name of the month. Otherwise, an indication of the publication month, with the format not being restricted. 2.13.3. "year" Attribute In the "boilerplate" case, the year of publication this is a number (usually four-digit). Otherwise, an indication of the publication year, with the format not being restricted. Reschke Informational [Page 14] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.14. Provides an email address. The value is expected to be an email address conforming to the addr-spec definition in Section 2 of [RFC6068] (so does not include the prefix "mailto:"). This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.2). Content model: only text content. 2.15. Represents an "external" link (as specified in the "target" attribute). If the element has no text content, the value of the "target" attribute will be inserted in angle brackets (as described in Appendix C of [RFC3986]) and, depending on the capabilities of the output format, hyperlinked. Otherwise, the text content will be used (and potentially hyperlinked). Depending on output format and formatter, additional text might be inserted (such as a "URI" counter, and a "URIs" section in the back of the document). Avoid this variant when consistent rendering across formats and formatters is desired. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.3), (Section 2.8),

(Section 2.29), and (Section 2.38). Content model: only text content. 2.15.1. "target" Attribute (Mandatory) URI of the link target (see Section 3 of [RFC3986]). Reschke Informational [Page 15] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.16. Represents the phone number of a fax machine. The value is expected to be the scheme-specific part of a "tel" URI (so does not include the prefix "tel:"), using the "global numbers" syntax. See Section 3 of [RFC3966] for details. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.2). Content model: only text content. 2.17. This element is used to represent a figure, consisting of an optional preamble, the actual figure, an optional postamble, and an optional title. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.34) and (Section 2.38). Content model: In this order: 1. Optional elements (Section 2.20) 2. One optional

element (Section 2.28) 2.17.1. "align" Attribute Used to change the alignment of

Represents a phone number. The value is expected to be the scheme-specific part of a "tel" URI (so does not include the prefix "tel:"), using the "global numbers" syntax. See Section 3 of [RFC3966] for details. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.2). Content model: only text content. Reschke Informational [Page 24] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.27.

Contains child elements providing postal information. Note that at least one element needs to be present however, formatters will handle empty values just fine. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.2). Content model: In this order: 1. One or more elements (Section 2.37) 2. In any order: * elements (Section 2.9) * elements (Section 2.32) * elements (Section 2.10) * elements (Section 2.11) 2.28.

Gives text that appears at the bottom of a figure or table. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.17) and

(Section 2.39). Content model: In any order: o Text o elements (Section 2.45) o elements (Section 2.15) o elements (Section 2.20) o elements (Section 2.12) o elements (Section 2.36) Reschke Informational [Page 25] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.29.

Gives text that appears at the top of a figure or table. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.17) and

(Section 2.27). Content model: only text content. 2.33. This is the root element of the xml2rfc vocabulary. Processors distinguish between RFC mode ("number" attribute being present) and Internet-Draft mode ("docName" attribute being present): it is invalid to specify both. Setting neither "number" nor "docName" can be useful for producing other types of documents but is out of scope for this specification. Content model: In this order: 1. One element (Section 2.19) 2. One element (Section 2.23) 3. One optional element (Section 2.7) 2.33.1. "category" Attribute Document category (see Appendix A.1). Allowed values: o "std" o "bcp" o "info" o "exp" o "historic" Reschke Informational [Page 28] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.33.2. "consensus" Attribute Affects the generated boilerplate. See [RFC5741] for more information. Allowed values: o "no" o "yes" 2.33.3. "docName" Attribute For Internet-Drafts, this specifies the draft name (which appears below the title). A processor should give an error if both the "docName" and "number" attributes are given in the element. Note that the file extension is not part of the draft, so in general it should end with the current draft number ("-", plus two digits). Furthermore, it is good practice to disambiguate current editor copies from submitted drafts (for instance, by replacing the draft number with the string "latest"). See Section 7 of [IDGUIDE] for further information. Reschke Informational [Page 29] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.33.4. "ipr" Attribute Represents the Intellectual Property status of the document. See Appendix A.2 for details. Allowed values: o "full2026" o "noDerivativeWorks2026" o "none" o "full3667" o "noModification3667" o "noDerivatives3667" o "full3978" o "noModification3978" o "noDerivatives3978" o "trust200811" o "noModificationTrust200811" o "noDerivativesTrust200811" o "trust200902" o "noModificationTrust200902" o "noDerivativesTrust200902" o "pre5378Trust200902" 2.33.5. "iprExtract" Attribute Identifies a single section within the document (by its "anchor" attribute) for which extraction "as is" is explicitly allowed (this is only relevant for historic values of the "ipr" attribute). Reschke Informational [Page 30] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.33.6. "number" Attribute The number of the RFC to be produced. A processor should give an error if both the "docName" and "number" attributes are given in the element. 2.33.7. "obsoletes" Attribute A comma-separated list of RFC _numbers_ or Internet-Draft names. Processors ought to parse the attribute value, so that incorrect references can be detected and, depending on output format, hyperlinks can be generated. Also, the value ought to be reformatted to insert whitespace after each comma if not already present. 2.33.8. "seriesNo" Attribute Number within a document series. The document series is defined by the "category" attribute "seriesNo" is only applicable to the values "info" ("FYI" series), "std" ("STD" series), and "bcp" ("BCP" series). 2.33.9. "submissionType" Attribute The document stream. See Section 2 of [RFC5741] for details. Allowed values: o "IETF" (default) o "IAB" o "IRTF" o "independent" 2.33.10. "updates" Attribute A comma-separated list of RFC _numbers_ or Internet-Draft names. Processors ought to parse the attribute value, so that incorrect references can be detected and, depending on output format, hyperlinks can be generated. Also, the value ought to be reformatted to insert whitespace after each comma if not already present. Reschke Informational [Page 31] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.33.11. "xml:lang" Attribute The natural language used in the document (defaults to "en"). See Section 2.12 of [XML] for more information. 2.34. Represents a section (when inside a element) or an appendix (when inside a element). Subsections are created by nesting elements inside elements. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.7), (Section 2.23), and (Section 2.34). Content model: In this order: 1. In any order: * elements (Section 2.38) * elements (Section 2.17) *

elements (Section 2.39) * elements (Section 2.20) 2. Optional elements (Section 2.34) 2.34.1. "anchor" Attribute Document-wide unique identifier for this section. The value needs to be a valid XML "Name" (Section 2.3 of [XML]). 2.34.2. "title" Attribute (Mandatory) The title of the section. Reschke Informational [Page 32] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.34.3. "toc" Attribute Determines whether the section is included in the Table of Contents. The processor usually has defaults for whether a Table of Contents will be produced at all, and sections of which maximal depth will be included (frequently: 3). "include" and "exclude" allow overriding the processor's default behavior for the element they are specified on (they do not affect either nested or parent elements). Allowed values: o "include" o "exclude" o "default" (default) 2.35. Specifies the document series in which this document appears, and also specifies an identifier within that series. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.30). Content model: this element does not have any contents. 2.35.1. "name" Attribute (Mandatory) The name of the series. Some series names might trigger specific processing (such as for autogenerating links, inserting descriptions such as "work in progress", or additional functionality like reference diagnostics). Examples for IETF-related series names are "BCP", "FYI", "Internet-Draft", "RFC", and "STD". 2.35.2. "value" Attribute (Mandatory) The identifier within the series specified by the "name" attribute. For BCPs, FYIs, RFCs, and STDs, this is the number within the series. For Internet-Drafts, it is the full draft name (ending with the two-digit version number). Reschke Informational [Page 33] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.36. Wraps a piece of text, indicating special formatting styles. When generating plain text, processors usually emulate font changes using characters such as "*" and "_". The following styles are defined: emph Simple emphasis (this is the default). strong Strong emphasis. verb "Verbatim" text (usually displayed using a monospaced font face). This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.3), (Section 2.8),

(Section 2.29), and (Section 2.38). Content model: only text content. 2.36.1. "style" Attribute The style to be used (defaults to "emph"). 2.36.2. "xml:space" Attribute Determines whitespace handling. According to the DTD, the default value is "preserve". However, tests show that it doesn't have any effect on processing thus, this attribute will be removed in future versions of the vocabulary. See also Section 2.10 of [XML]. Allowed values: o "default" o "preserve" (default) Reschke Informational [Page 34] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.37. Provides a street address. This element appears as a child element of

Contains a table, consisting of an optional preamble, a header line, rows, an optional postamble, and an optional title. The number of columns in the table is determined by the number of elements. The number of rows in the table is determined by the number of elements divided by the number of columns. There is no requirement that the number of elements be evenly divisible by the number of columns. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.34). Content model: In this order: 1. One optional

element (Section 2.29) 2. One or more elements (Section 2.41) 3. Optional elements (Section 2.8) 4. One optional

element (Section 2.28) 2.39.1. "align" Attribute Determines the horizontal alignment of the table. Allowed values: o "left" o "center" (default) o "right" 2.39.2. "anchor" Attribute Document-wide unique identifier for this table. Furthermore, the presence of this attribute causes the table to be numbered. The value needs to be a valid XML "Name" (Section 2.3 of [XML]). Reschke Informational [Page 36] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.39.3. "style" Attribute Selects which borders should be drawn, where o "all" means borders around all table cells, o "full" is like "all", except no horizontal lines between table rows (except below the column titles), o "headers" adds just a separator between column titles and rows, and o "none" means no borders at all. Allowed values: o "all" o "none" o "headers" o "full" (default) 2.39.4. "suppress-title" Attribute Tables that have an "anchor" attribute will automatically get an autogenerated title (such as "Table 1"), even if the "title" attribute is absent. Setting this attribute to "true" will prevent this. Allowed values: o "true" o "false" (default) 2.39.5. "title" Attribute The title for the table this usually appears on a line below the table body. Reschke Informational [Page 37] RFC 7749 The "xml2rfc" Version 2 Vocabulary February 2016 2.40. Represents the document title. When this element appears in the element of the current document, the title might also appear in page headers or footers. If it's long (

40 characters), the "abbrev" attribute is used to specify an abbreviated variant. This element appears as a child element of (Section 2.19). Content model: only text content. 2.40.1. "abbrev" Attribute Specifies an abbreviated variant of the document title. 2.41. Contains a column heading in a table. This element appears as a child element of


When we drink a glass of water, write in a notebook, take medicine for a fever or build a house, we do not always make the connection with forests. And yet, these and many other aspects of our lives are linked to forests in one way or another.

Forest sustainable management and their use of resources are key to combating climate change, and to contributing to the prosperity and well-being of current and future generations. Forests also play a crucial role in poverty alleviation and in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet despite all of these priceless ecological, economic, social and health benefits, global deforestation continues at an alarming rate.

Forest restoration

The theme of the International Day of Forests for 2021 is "Forest restoration: a path to recovery and well-being." The restoration and sustainable management of forests help address the climate-change and biodiversity crises. It also produces goods and services for sustainable development, fostering an economic activity that creates jobs and improves lives.

This year’s theme fits into the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030), a call for the protection and revival of ecosystems around the world.

Background

The United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 21 March the International Day of Forests in 2012 to celebrate and raise awareness of the importance of all types of forests. Countries are encouraged to undertake local, national and international efforts to organize activities involving forests and trees, such as tree planting campaigns.

The organizers are the United Nations Forum on Forests and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with Governments, the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and other relevant organizations in the field.

Did you know?

  • Forests are home to about 80% of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity, with more that 60,000 tree species.
  • Around 1.6 billion people depend directly on forests for food, shelter, energy, medicines and income.
  • The world is losing 10 million hectares of forest each year - about the size of Iceland - which accounts for 12 to 20 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change.
  • Land degradation affects almost 2 billion hectares – an area larger than South America.

Four things you need to know about forests and health

Spending time around trees helps boost our immune system, lowers blood pressure and promotes relaxation Find out how forests benefit our physical and mental well-being.


Watch the video: Ελληνική ιστορία - Μορφές και γεγονότα της Ελληνικής Επανάστασης 1821-1829 (October 2022).

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